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英國舉辦多次氣候大會,針對國家如何脫碳向公民徵詢意見。照片來源:Fabio de Paola / PA Wire/中外對話(CC BY-NC-ND 2.5 CN)

 

COP26聯合國氣候峰會將於今年11月在英國格拉斯哥舉行。為此,英國首相鮑里斯.強森(Boris Johnson)政府舉辦多場氣候公民大會,針對國家如何脫碳向110位公民徵詢意見。

為舉辦公民大會,英國政府採用公民樂透的方式,發出3萬封邀請函,再從願意參與的人中隨機挑選110人,共舉辦四個週末,伯明翰大會是第二場。

專精於參與式民主、負責監督此次氣候公民大會舉辦的慈善機構「Resolve」稱,這批參加者能夠代表英國人口的年齡、性別、教育程度、種族、分布和對氣候變遷的態度。

公民大會不對媒體開放。每場參加者被分配到五張桌子,每桌六到七人,包括一位調解人,並有10分鐘的時間與專家交換意見。

而在伯明翰舉辦的公民大會上,學者們表示英國人應減少購買、多租賃,多在衣物或腳踏車等物品壞掉時嘗試修理,以幫助國家達到2050零排放的目標。

 

法國去年10月發起了類似的民主實驗,以瞭解選民對於減排目標的看法。英國去年將2050年淨零排放目標入法,是G7中的第一個,但並未確切說明行動方案。

卡迪夫大學永續消費學者妮可.科尼格-路易斯(Nicole Koenig-Lewis)在大會上表示:「消費越多,耗盡自然資源的速度就越快。化石燃料或礦物等資源使水和空氣污染增加,也造成過多浪費。時裝業每年有30萬噸的服裝被送往垃圾掩埋場。」

許多與會者表示他們知道這些問題,但也有人懷疑政府不會聽從他們的意見。「這對我們這一代人來說是個大問題,」一位20歲的工程師表示,這個社會的文化就是用過就丟,「我們從未被教導如何修補或製作衣服……我們需要教育年輕一代如何做這些事情,而不是僅僅過著消費主義的生活。」

去年四月要求舉辦公民大會的六個議會委員會,將會收到大會討論的結果。不過,討論結果對政府沒有強制力,「反抗滅絕」(Extinction Rebellion)行動人士表示這樣作用並不大。

相較之下,法國總統馬克宏(Emmanuel Macron)表示,他打算直接將公民意見付諸公投、議會投票或在監管之下執行。

 

在伯明翰公民大會上,有與會者質疑國會商業、能源和工業戰略委員會主席雷切爾.里夫斯(Rachel Reeves),如何保證政府遵循民眾的建議。來自反對黨工黨的里夫斯強調,公民大會獲得跨黨派的支持,並非裝模作樣。

參加者在會議上分組探討各種英國經濟脱碳的方法,包括家庭能源、交通和消費。在針對消費的研討會上,講者對於未來能源效率提高,英國人民將無法維持目前消費水平的觀點提出挑戰。

從目前用過即丟的消費文化轉型零淨排放經濟,必須靠產生更少廢棄物、更高品質和更耐用的產品。

利茲大學能源與氣候政策教授約翰.巴雷特(John Barrett)表示:「新款iPhone的新自拍功能,有為我們的生活創造龐大的價值嗎?這並非任何人的錯,而是我們身處的體系使然。」部分經濟學家也反對減少購買將不利經濟增長和就業的說法。

巴雷特表示,與會者對產品品質不佳和壽命短也感到很厭煩。科尼格-路易斯則提倡從持有轉向租賃或共享。共乘、衣服共享或產品租用方案,長期下來可以使英國人減少資源的耗用。

關於共享經濟,科尼格-路易斯說,與會者想知道如何讓租車更人性化。與會者對維修方案也很有興趣,如「修理咖啡館」,人們可以帶壞掉的產品來這裡修,舉凡衣服、自行車、家具、電器都行,並有機會學習如何自己修理。

 

要求企業標示產品碳足跡的想法則大受歡迎。目前英國沒有強制產品要標示碳足跡,不過這個做法獲得Kit-Kat巧克力、Cheerios麥片和雀巢咖啡等知名品牌的支持。

會議上呈現了一張碳排與收入的關係圖表,指出最富裕的5%人口所產生的碳排最多。巴雷特表示,這張圖表引起與會者的共鳴,顯示他們認同污染者付費的概念。

儘管與會者在是否限制肉類消費、支持植物性飲食等主題上意見分歧,但對於舉辦公民大會都給予正面評價。

一位32歲的機械工程師表示,一開始的確對氣候公民大會存疑:「找一群人代表人民、為人民做決定,那不就是議會嗎?」但他說,與會者相當多元,而且願意在議題上尋求折衷方案,讓他倍感驚喜。他說,與會者完整涵蓋了氣候意見光譜,從氣候否定論者到積極支持者,以及介於兩者之間的各種人都有。

資料來源:環境資訊中心

 

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巴西國家太空研究院(INPE)周三發表一份報告顯示,2019年全年在南美洲亞馬遜雨林內發生的火災,比對上一年大幅上升30%。

根據 INPE

...

TAIPEI (Taiwan News) -- Taiwan's sea levels are rising at a higher rate than the rest of the world due to global warming, and the country may only have 12 years to move its capital inland to avoid flooding, according to a prominent meteorologist.

Sea levels around Taiwan are likely to rise faster than the global average due to the island's sub-tropical location, the rotation of the earth, the high sea temperatures in the Western Pacific Ocean, and the convergence of seawater and the thermal expansion effect, reported TechOrange.

Air Clean Taiwan (ACT) Director Yeh Guang-peng (葉光芃) told TechOrange that "The UK has reduced carbon for six consecutive years and its carbon levels have been restored to 1888 levels, yet the UK has still declared an emergency. However, Taiwan's CO2 emissions are increasing, and we [Taiwan, UK] are all islands, so our sea level will rise much higher than that of other countries."

Radio Taiwan International cited NGO Taiwan Action Alliance for Healthy Air (台灣健康空氣行動聯盟), as saying that the average global temperature is set to rise by one degree Celsius, while Taiwan is on a course to rise by 1.4 degrees, and Taipei is expected to rise by 1.7 degrees. This means that if the global average temperature rises by 1.5 degrees in 2030, Tapei will probably rise by over 2 degrees.

If the global temperature rises by 2 degrees by 2050, that means Taipei could see its average temperature rise by 3 to 4 degrees.

Chen Chao-lun (陳昭倫), a researcher at Academia Sinica's Biodiversity Research Center (BRC) told TechOrange that the sea around Taiwan is warming at one of the fastest rates in the world. Chen added that even if humans are able to restrict warming to within 1.5 degrees, 90 percent of the world's coral reefs will disappear.

Yeh also put forward specific examples. If the temperature rises by 2 degrees in 2050, the Taipei Songshan Airport and Dazhi luxury residential area will be inundated with sea water. Yeh predicts that in this scenario, planes will not be able to take off and land from Songshan Airport, and the New Taipei section of the Taoyuan Airport MRT would collapse.

The Taiwan Action Alliance for Healthy Air also predicts that by the end of the 21st Century, the Taipei Basin will be flooded to a height of three meters. They said that about one-third of the land in Greater Taipei would be underwater.

In the future, out of Taiwan's six major cities, the NGO predicts that only Taoyuan and Taichung would survive. Because Taipei lies in a basin, it aggravates the heat island effect, resulting in an even more rapid temperature rise, according to the organization.

The NGO said that if the rising sea reaches the Taipei Basin, the flood waters will be difficult to discharge because of the city's geographical layout. In addition, earthquakes brought on by climate change could aggravate the disaster in the basin.

In an interview with Formosa Television, Peng Chi-ming (彭啟明), an adjunct assistant professor with the National Central University's Department of Atmospheric Sciences, said, "The temperature rise may reach 1.5 degrees in 2032, so we only have 12 years left to relocate the capital. So we must act quickly."

The Taiwan Action Alliance for Healthy Air and climate change scholars are jointly calling on Taiwan's government to actively implement carbon reduction policies and consider immediately launching a plan to move the city of Taipei to higher ground.

Source: Taiwan News

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